Antimicrobial Secretions of Toads (Anura, Bufonidae): Bioactive Extracts and Isolated Compounds against Human Pathogens.


Species of the family Bufonidae, better known as true toads, are widespread and produce bioactive substances in the secretions obtained from specialized skin macroglands. Some true toads have been employed as a folk remedy to treat infectious diseases caused by microbial pathogens. Recent publications based on in silico analysis highlighted the Bufonidae as promising sources of antimicrobial peptides. A review of the literature reveals that Bufonidae skin secretion extracts show inhibitory activity in vitro against clinical isolates of bacteria, resistant and standard strains of bacterial, and fungal and parasitic human pathogens. Secondary metabolites belonging to the classes of alkaloids, bufadienolides, and peptides with antimicrobial activity have been isolated from species of the genera , , and . Additionally, some antimicrobial extracts and purified compounds display low cytotoxicity against mammal cells.